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Kazakhstan and China Exploration of significant political changes in the dynamics of Kazakh-Chinese relations.

Exploration of significant political changes in the dynamics of Kazakh-Chinese relations.

01.12.2023
Results of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s trip to the United States: is a peaceful future expected between the powers?

Last week, the world focused on the meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and US President Joe Biden, which took place as part of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders’ summit.

These negotiations were the first since last year’s meeting of heads of state in Bali, when the countries reached a number of important general agreements. However, the current agenda is quite expectedly different; over the course of the year, several really important topics for negotiations have accumulated, and the expert community anxiously awaited reasons to forecast future relations between the two, in many ways, powerful countries.

Currently, the Asia-Pacific region is recognized as the most successful; the rapid rate of economic growth clearly emphasizes this. In conditions of global instability and uncertainty, it is undoubtedly important to try to establish or maintain the positive mood of the strongest world leaders, because the fate of not only the region, but also the strategically important partners of the participating countries depends on this. In this sense, the Republic of Kazakhstan also needs confidence in a stable and dynamically developing good neighborliness with China.

According to the Leader of the People’s Republic of China, the issues facing the entire world community cannot be resolved without the cooperation of large countries. China and the United States should lead by example and strengthen coordination and cooperation in international and regional spheres. The parties must remain open to mutual initiatives, coordinate and connect them to achieve synergy.

He added that over the past half century, China-US relations have “never been smooth.” At the same time, faced with problems, they continued to exist and somehow advance. However, “turning away from each other” is not the path that world powers should take. It is impossible to change each other; conflict and confrontation will entail “unbearable consequences for both sides.”

In turn, Joe Biden noted that he considers the relationship between China and the United States to be the most important bilateral relationship in the world. The absence of any conflicts in this area is a completely feasible phenomenon.

The peace, development and stability of the PRC are the interests of not only the United States, but also the whole world. Just like the internal economic growth and strengthening of China’s position in the world, which will also benefit everyone. Maintaining stability in relations between China and the United States, managing differences, and expanding cooperation for the benefit of common interests will make it possible to more effectively respond to our own and global problems.

Biden expressed how important it is to return to “normal” interactions: talking on the phone in the event of a crisis, having confidence in maintaining military-to-military ties and a common effort to make a difference.

Based on the official positions of the heads of state, there is definitely hope for real progressive cooperation between the countries. In any case, several already raging wars and globally pressing issues make us believe in friendly, smiling meetings of important partners and hope that someday a handshake and negotiations about the obvious significance of peace will become commonplace for all participants in world processes. What is at stake is public reaction and the formation of a common opinion, and therefore common values and agreements.

Speaking of military or tense moods, Xi Jinping assured that China will not be either colonial or hegemonic. Contrary to many expert opinions about the looming danger of China eclipsing the United States, President Xi Jinping sees no reason to play a race between economies. It is argued that countries are capable of developing independently, while bilateral cooperation is necessary to achieve common success and maintain stability in the region and the world, primarily due to the undeniable strength and achieved power of the two states.

In addition, the Chairman of the People’s Republic of China noted that the state has principles and “borders” that are unacceptable for friendly countries to encroach on. China, undoubtedly, is always, and in this case also, interested in building partnerships that primarily take into account mutual respect and the desire for peaceful coexistence.

During the meeting, Joe Biden emphasized that countries are interconnected economically. The United States happily supports the development and prosperity of its partner and does not try to exert pressure. At the same time, Biden expressed his readiness to continue interaction with Chinese partners in order to strengthen mutual understanding, resolve differences, and avoid misunderstandings and conflicts.

Although many media outlets and specialists in Chinese-American relations certainly focus on this , in a number of his promises the US President noted that the point “not to support Taiwan’s independence” is still relevant. China definitely shouldn’t worry about the possibility of a new Cold War; Biden has also ruled it out.

As a result of the negotiations, the leaders of the countries came to a common decision on the need to promote and strengthen dialogue and cooperation between powers in various fields. It is reasonable to assume that a worthy and mutually beneficial partnership between both powers will definitely lead to the birth of large-scale projects of world value and global significance.

In particular, Xi Jinping and Joe Biden agreed to conduct an intergovernmental dialogue on the development of artificial intelligence. The dawn of technological and labor exchange is probably just around the corner. At the same time, the heads of state outlined the importance of carrying out work to combat drugs, having agreed to establish a working group on this issue. The leaders are also convinced of the need to develop military ties and security at a high level, including the creation of the possibility of mutual consultation and telephone communication between the heads of state army districts. The desire to significantly increase air flights and improve the order of cultural, educational and business exchanges was specified.

The declaration signed at the APEC summit also confirms the serious prospects for the development of the countries of the region, not only in the political and economic spheres, but also by uniting in the face of climate change problems. It is recognized that countries need greater efforts to accelerate the transition to clean, sustainable, equitable, affordable and inclusive energy sources in a variety of ways, consistent with achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions and carbon neutrality by the mid-21st century. In addition, governments will focus on creating new jobs and attracting investment to the region.

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the People’s Republic of China to the Republic of Kazakhstan Zhang Xiao noted that Xi Jinping’s speech at the summit shows that China’s positions and concepts have received wide approval from the world, and the constructive role of the People’s Republic of China is becoming increasingly noticeable.

It is also important to have a holistic understanding of the meeting between the leaders of the United States and China in modern conditions – this is truly a historical event, which, even if it does not represent a picture of a completely new branch of relations between world powers, definitely leads to the improvement of these relations and the progress of general interactions. Currently, the strengthening of international cooperation, especially of world economic leaders, whose relations have undergone crisis situations for quite a long time, should be viewed mainly positively.

Visit of the Deputy Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China to Kazakhstan: good neighborliness and prospects for the development of bilateral relations

Last Monday, now Kazakhstan and China also considered the prospects for cooperation in a number of important industries. For this purpose, Deputy Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China Ding Xuexiang visited Astana and met with First Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Roman Sklyar. Colleagues held a bilateral meeting to discuss intergovernmental cooperation.

First of all, the visit of the Deputy Prime Minister of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China was marked by the 11th meeting of the Kazakh-Chinese cooperation committee. It took place with the participation of the first heads of central government agencies of the two countries. During the meeting, Kazakhstan and China discussed further development in the areas of trade, customs regulation, energy, transport and logistics, science, culture, environmental protection, water management and others.

According to the First Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Roman Sklyar, over 2 years of cooperation, all responsible subcommittees implemented agreements in their areas and outlined new guidelines for further interaction. He expressed confidence that the results of the meeting will give new impetus to the strengthening of interstate relations.

For his part, Deputy Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China Ding Xuexiang supported the initiatives of the Kazakh side and emphasized the readiness of the People’s Republic of China to actively work to implement previously reached and new agreements.

He added that Kazakh-Chinese relations have reached the level of a comprehensive strategic partnership. Ding Xuexiang also mentioned that this year two visits of the President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev to China were successful. The meetings of the leaders turned out to be very meaningful. Now the governments of the two countries have a clear task in implementing projects and creating new partnership plans.

According to the press service of the Government of Kazakhstan, following the meeting, the parties signed a final Protocol and agreed to hold the 12th meeting of the Kazakh-Chinese Cooperation Committee in 2025. After shaking hands, the parties chose China for the next committee meeting.

In the presence of Roman Sklyar and Ding Xuexiang, an Intergovernmental Agreement on the mutual establishment of cultural centers was signed, as well as a working protocol of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China on the coordination of phytosanitary requirements for export batches of fresh stone fruit crops from Kazakhstan.

During a discussion of issues related to agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture of Kazakhstan, Aidarbek Saparov, and the Chairman of the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China, Yu Jianhua, agreed to increase the turnover of agricultural products between the countries.

As Aidarbek Saparov noted at the meeting, Kazakhstan’s great potential in the supply of chilled beef and pork in addition to frozen meat, poultry products and live cattle, as well as oilseeds and grain crops to China will contribute to a significant increase in trade turnover. At the same time, the Chinese side was offered to export meat from safe zones for now, since the Ministry of Agriculture is now actively fighting dangerous diseases in livestock and poultry farming.

Yu Jianhua said that the final stage of risk assessment is currently underway to further lift restrictions and resume the supply of beef, pork and poultry. The visit of Chinese specialists from the General Administration of Customs is scheduled for December this year.

The message from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan states that based on the results of the assessment of the veterinary service of Kazakhstan, the Chinese side will be ready to consider the possibility of lifting existing restrictions and move on to resuming the export of livestock products to China. It is likely that in the near future this issue will be resolved and supplies will become regular and safe. To develop partnership between countries in such an important industry from the point of view of ensuring the well-being of citizens, Yu Jianhua invited Aidarbek Saparov to visit China.

The ministry also recalled that over the 10 months of 2023, the volume of mutual trade in the agricultural sector between Kazakhstan and China increased by 70 percent, thereby exceeding $1 billion. Exports amounted to $811.1 million, imports – $197.4 million.

Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Alikhan Smailov also held negotiations with Deputy Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China Ding Xuexiang .

The Head of the Government of Kazakhstan noted that today the bilateral trade turnover of the two countries shows quite high indicators, while dynamic growth continues. So, last year it increased by 35 percent and reached an impressive volume of 24.2 billion US dollars. In his opinion, it will soon be possible to achieve the goal of increasing trade turnover to $40 billion. This task was outlined by the heads of state.

The Prime Minister did not ignore the event that literally two weeks ago created a new stage in the development of Kazakh-Chinese relations, we are talking about a visa-free regime. This measure will have a significant impact on stimulating business contacts, simplifying trade, increasing mutual investments and developing tourism. This is especially true now, on the eve of the “Year of Tourism of Kazakhstan in China”.

A. Smailov emphasized the importance of expanding the List of joint Kazakh-Chinese projects in the field of industrialization and investment, signing the Roadmap for the implementation of the Trade and Economic Cooperation Program until 2026, as well as updating the Agreement on mutual inspection of import-export goods. He added that the practical measures that will be provided for in these documents will expand the range of supplied goods and take the trade partnership to a qualitatively new level.

During the negotiations, Deputy Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China Ding Xuexiang noted that 2023 has become a very productive year for Kazakhstan and China, and indicated the PRC’s readiness to increase cooperation in all mutually beneficial areas.

The Chinese side firmly expressed confidence in the prospects for future cooperation, adding that China and Kazakhstan are close neighbors, true friends and partners. Today, both states are at a key stage of their development and revival. As countries face greater challenges amid unprecedented change, there is a need to strengthen mutual support on all key issues at all levels.

China Studies Center, Astana

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